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Massachusetts Purchase and Sale Agreements

Whether you’re a first-time homebuyer or a seasoned real estate investor, navigating the complexities of residential purchase and sale agreements in Massachusetts can be daunting. In this blog post, we will dive deep into the intricacies of these agreements, offering valuable insights and actionable tips to help you stay informed and confident throughout the process. If we can help you with your real estate law needs, please contact us.

Elements of the Purchase and Sale Agreement

Once the buyer’s Offer to Purchase has been accepted by the seller, a Massachusetts Purchase and Sale Agreement (“P&S” or “PNS”) is negotiated and drafted by the buyer’s attorney and the seller’s lawyer. A Massachusetts purchase and sale agreement is a legally binding contract that outlines the terms and conditions of a real estate transaction between the home buyer and a seller. This essential agreement establishes the purchase price, closing date, contingencies, and other pertinent details to ensure a transparent and fair transaction. For a more detailed explanation of common provisions, please visit this article here.

Understanding the Core Elements

In Massachusetts, a purchase and sale agreement typically includes the following components:

  • Parties Involved: Clearly identify the buyer(s) and seller(s) and their contact information.
  • Property Description: Provide a detailed description of the property.
  • Purchase Price and Terms: Specify the agreed-upon purchase price, down payment, and financing terms.
  • Earnest Money Deposit: Detail the amount, payment method, and conditions for releasing the deposit.
  • Contingencies: List any conditions that must be met before the transaction can proceed, such as clear title, mortgage approval, inspection results, or sale of the buyer’s current home. For a contingency to be added to the purchase and sale agreement, it must have been reserved with the offer to purchase.
  • Inspection and Repair Negotiations: Define the inspection process, timeframes, and how any necessary repairs will be addressed. 
  • Closing Date and Possession: Establish a specific closing date and when the buyer will take possession of the property.
  • Prorations and Adjustments: Outline how property taxes, utility bills, and other expenses will be prorated between the buyer and seller.
  • Representations and Warranties: Describe any warranties or representations made by the seller regarding the property’s condition.
  • Default and Remedies: Clarify the consequences if either party fails to fulfill their obligations under the agreement.

Contingencies in Massachusetts P&S Agreements

In a Massachusetts purchase and agreement, contingencies are essential to protect both buyers and sellers. Some common contingencies that may be included appear below. To be added to the Massachusetts purchase and sale agreement, it must have been reserved with the offer to purchase:

  • Financing Contingency: Ensures the buyer can secure a mortgage to finance the purchase.
  • Inspection Contingency: Allows the buyer to conduct a thorough home inspection and negotiate repairs or credits based on the findings. Typically the home inspection is done prior to signing the purchase and sale agreement and will not be in the P&S unless otherwise agreed.
  • Title Contingency: Ensures the seller can provide a clear and marketable title to the property. Otherwise, the buyer can terminate.
  • Appraisal Contingency: Requires the property to appraise at or above the agreed-upon purchase price. This is typically strongly resisted by the seller of the home a the Offer to Purchase stage.
  • Sale of Buyer’s Property Contingency: This makes the transaction dependent on the successful sale of the buyer’s current home.
  • Closing on Seller’s New Home: Requires the seller to have the ability to find another property before being obligated to close on their home sale.

These contingencies provide a safety net allowing a party to back out of the transaction if certain conditions are not met.

Navigating the Inspection Process in Massachusetts

In Massachusetts, home inspections are a crucial part of the home buying process. By including an inspection contingency in your Offer to Purchase, you can help to ensure that you’re aware of any potential issues with the property before finalizing the purchase. Here’s what you need to know about the inspection process:

  • Hire a Licensed Home Inspector: Choose a qualified, licensed home inspector to conduct a thorough examination of the property. They will assess the structural, electrical, plumbing, and HVAC systems, along with any other areas of concern.
  • Review the Inspection Report: Once the inspection is complete, the inspector will provide you with a detailed report highlighting any issues or potential problems. Review this report carefully and consult with your real estate agent to determine the best course of action.
  • Negotiate Repairs or Credits: If the inspection uncovers issues, you typically have the option to request repairs through your real estate agent, to negotiate a credit towards the purchase price, or potentially back out of the deal entirely. 
  • Be Present: Be physically present for the inspection so the report makes more sense to you.

The Role of Real Estate Attorneys in Massachusetts Purchase and Sale Agreements

In Massachusetts, it’s common practice to involve a real estate attorney in the drafting and review of purchase and agreements. An experienced attorney can provide invaluable guidance and ensure that your interests are well-represented throughout the process. Here’s how an attorney can help:

  • Drafting and Review: Your attorney will draft or review the P&S agreement to ensure it accurately reflects the terms of the transaction and includes necessary contingencies.
  • Negotiation Support: If issues arise during the transaction, your attorney can assist with negotiations and provide guidance on the best course of action.
  • Title Examination: Your attorney can conduct or review a thorough title examination to ensure there are no liens, easements, or other encumbrances that could impact your ownership of the property.
  • Real Estate Closing Coordination: Your attorney can work closely with the relevant parties to coordinate the final steps of the transaction, ensuring a smooth and efficient closing process.

You can confidently navigate the transaction’s complexities by involving a real estate attorney in your Massachusetts P&S agreement.


Now that you have a solid understanding of Massachusetts  purchase and sale agreements, you’re well-equipped to navigate the process confidently. You can ensure a successful real estate transaction by familiarizing yourself with the key components, understanding the importance of contingencies, following the inspection process, and involving a real estate attorney. Please contact us if our real estate lawyers can assist you with your Massachusetts purchase and sale agreement.

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